9. Amerindian Animism and Process Thought
Updated: Aug 27, 2019
Section heads: Zsofia Frei, Hilan Bensusan
The concrete not Concrete dance of Guarani Woman
Rafaela Herran and Bianca Scliar
This article presents the Guaraní women dance from the Mbyá Guarani Village of
Biguaçu inviting the discussions about the elements collected during interviews that were part
of the research project of Rafaela Herran Master, supervised by Professor Bianca Scliar to
draw attention and develop the notions of Nhandereko, Nhebodjaity and Body in relation to
Whitehead's ideas of Presentation Immediacy.
In Guarani Cosmology time begins with the first story, when Nhanderu existed in the
midst of darkness, in the chaos of the original space-time (arayma), the great and silent
nothingness, empty space filled with absolutely unimaginable possibilities, that the echo
emanates its triumphant sound solitary. Nhanderu Tenonde (Nhanderu literally "our father",
Tenonde "the first") is the creator of the universe. Although the sun did not exist, Nhanderu
did not see darkness, for Nhanderu was illuminated by the reflection of his own heart (p'aa), it
made the wisdom contained in his divinity serve him with the sun. From the shining light on
his chest (called kuaa-ra-ra or also Nhamandu Tenonde Py'a), Nhanderu creates in the course
of his own evolution, Nhamandu Ru Ete (true father Nhamandu), Karai Ru Ete, Tupan Ru Ete
, Djakairá Ru Ete and the Nhandexykuery (Our Mothers), in each of the four celestial regions
inhabit the Nhe'e Ru Ete (true parents of the soul-words), next to their women and their
children the Nhe'e.
What constitutes most of the explanations about nhandereko is the importance of
repeating on earth what the gods do in their homes: "in every village, children are dancing,
just as they do in their heavenly abodes ..." because he who made the earth wants to see the
children singing and dancing inside the house of prayer [opy] ". (Tape MbaraeteAnhetengua,
page 46). Ana Ramo in her thesis explains that "The importance of repeating on Earth what
the 'people of the high' (yvateguava'e) does in its ambá constitutes the nucleus of most
explanations about the 'rules' (teko) between Mbya "(Affonso, 2014, p.64).
In this text we present how the continuity of learning takes place in a doing, through
play that we see as "a dance". Dancing is one of the ways to promote the context where this
revelation is going to take place in the body inside the prayer's house, it is a way of showing
that they are in tune with the Kuery Nhanderu (the deities), because the khey are dancing in
the amba , courtyard of the opy, in the abodes of Nhanderu et.
Here we discuss how this interweaves and makes an abstract perspective such as
found in Whitehead's work, particularly in his notes on cause and efficacy. In his account of
how body and consciousness become one, there is a complex overlap that Whitehead calls
"non-sensory" perception with concrete perception. By nonsensual, Whitehead points toward
the field of experience that exceeds the presentation of the senses. In a non-sensual
perception, what is perceived emerges not from the sense-presentation of the present
environment (as in "this" touch or "this" view), but through an overlap of presentations that
are already anticipating the immediate future- perception of synchronized time. With the
non-sensual perception comes the feeling, in the movement, that the past and the present are
coagulating in an experience of an act already felt.
Through the analysis and narratives of Guarani women's dances, we intend to
contribute to the understanding of the fundamental experience of the Presentation-immediacy
as a metaprocess that already depends in a certain way on the act, finally asking about which
Rafaela Herran is an actress and teacher, MA in Performing Arts at the
PPGT-UDESC. She holds an BA from the Federal University of Santa Catarina and has
interest in the areas of body, dance, anthropology, indigenous culture and rituals.
Dr. Bianca Scliar is an artist and works at the intersections between dance and the
visual arts. PhD in Arts and Philosophy at Concordia University (Montreal / Canada) is
Professor of the Graduate Program in Performing Arts at UDESC, where she works between
research and creation, investigating pedagogical and composition processes. His main areas
of interest are performance in unconventional spaces, collaborative processes,
interdisciplinary practices and choreographic objects. She is a research associate at SenseLab
(Hexagram Institute / Concordia University), where she serves as a member of the editorial
board of the journal Inflexions - the Journal of Research Creation.
Spirituality and Health in the Huni Kuin Cosmology: a process perspective.
Alessandro Gonçalves Campolina is a doctor graduated from the Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), specialist in Geriatrics by the Brazilian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SBGG). He received training in Lifestyle Medicine from the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine - Harvard Medical School (Boston - USA), Certification in Clinical Hypnosis by the Brazilian Association of Hypnosis, Training in Schizodrama by the Felix Guattari Institute (Belo Horizonte - Brazil) and PhD at the University of São Paulo (USP). He is currently a researcher at the Cancer Institute of the State of São Paulo (ICESP) - Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (USP) and professor of the Veda Cognitive Therapy Center (CTV Veda).
For more than 10 years he has been dedicating himself to studies and researches related to the quality of life in health, with interest in integrative approaches that combine modifications of the state of consciousness. Since 2014 he has coordinated a Biofilosophy Study Group, which has been dedicated to the study of Alfred North Whitehead's philosophy and its intersections with concepts of molecular biology. At the same time, he has dedicated himself to studying the approaches to healing and the Amazonian ancestral medicines through experiences and collaborations with the Huni Kuin indigenous peoples of the Jordan River (Amazon, Acre - Brazil).
Alessandro Gonçalves Campolina é médico graduado pela Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), especialista em Geriatria pela Sociedade Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia (SBGG). Realizou treinamento em Medicina de Estilo de Vida pelo Institute of Lifestyle Medicine - Harvard Medical School (Boston - EUA), Certificação em Hipnose Clínica pela Associação Brasileira de Hipnose, Formação em Esquizodrama pelo Instituto Félix Guattari (Belo Horizonte – Brasil), Mestrado na Unifesp e Doutorado na Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Atualmente é pesquisador do Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP) - Faculdade de Medicina da USP e docente dos Programas de Pós-Graduação do Centro de Terapia Cognitiva-Veda (CTV Veda).
Há mais de 10 anos vem se dedicando a estudos e pesquisas relacionadas à qualidade de vida em saúde, com interesse por abordagens integrativas que conjugam modificações do estado de consciência. Desde 2014 coordena um Grupo de Estudos em Biofilosofia, que tem se dedicado ao estudo da filosofia de Alfred North Whitehead e suas intersecções com conceitos da biologia molecular. Ao mesmo tempo, tem se dedicado a estudar as abordagens de cura e as medicinas ancestrais amazônicas através de experiências e colaborações com os povos indígenas Huni Kuin do rio Jordão (Amazônia, Acre – Brasil).
In Alfred North Whitehead's philosophy, the religious problem implies the conception of an order in which the novelty is not lost, despite the continuous perishing of the processes of the temporal world. That is, the religious problem is a matter of time perishing, of the past disappearing, and that the creation of new objects involves the elimination of the immediate obstructions of the present.
For Agustin Ika Muru, a Huni Kuin indigenous leader, the religious problem is the great paradox that crosses the cosmogonic narratives of his people. "It was Yuxibu who created, it is only a yuxibu and within that power, thousands of yuxibus were created. So, everything is yuxibu. " In the Huni Kuin cosmogony, the story of Yuxibu narrates the existence of an entity that is simultaneously one and multiple, and which sustains creative power in all forming reality.
In the history of the onset of disease, the shamans receive the voice of Yuxibu: "for you to have the power to help your people, only if you become the herbs. That when you become herbs, your life, your work, will be like Yuxibu. " Thus, it is in the healing rituals that God’s and world’s feelings intersect, operating a reciprocal effectuation. The shaman receives the ancestral body of all the shamans who preceded him (voice and song) - primordial nature - and becomes sacred plants (physical and corporeal phenomena) - consequent nature. At the same time, all the people who participate in the ritual have the sacred plant (or healing herbs) awakened in their body (physical feelings) and, throughout the ritual, enters the great enchantment of the healing beauty (conceptual feelings).
Thus, the religious and cosmological problem in the Huni Kuin world implies the permanent ritualization of life; when the natives receive the voice and the word of the shamans and, at the same time, when they ingest the sacred plants, they deposit their physical feelings in the consequent nature of God. It is with this ritualistic that the primordial nature of God reaches its consequent nature and that the process of actualizing the entities of the world reaches its objective immortality.
The present study intends to present some central elements of the Huni Kuin indigenous spirituality, in intersection with Whitehead’s thought, in what concerns, in particular, the immanent relations between God and the world.
Espiritualidade e Saúde na Cosmologia Huni Kuin: uma perspectiva processual.
Na filosofia de Alfred North Whitehead, o problema religioso implica a concepção de uma ordem em que a novidade não é perdida, apesar do perecimento contínuo dos processos do mundo temporal. Ou seja, o problema religioso é uma questão de que o tempo perece, de que o passado desaparece, e de que a criação de novos objetos envolve a eliminação das obstruções imediatas do presente.
Para o pajé Agustinho Ika Muru, liderança indígena Huni Kuin, o problema religioso configura o grande paradoxo que atravessa as narrativas cosmogônicas do seu povo. “Foi Yuxibu que criou, é só um yuxibu e dentro desse poder, criaram-se milhares de Yuxibus. Então realmente tudo são yuxibu”. Na cosmogonia Huni Kuin, a história de Yuxibu narra a existência de uma entidade que é simultaneamente una e múltipla, e que sustenta o poder criativo em toda a realidade em formação.
Na história do surgimento das doenças, os pajés recebem a voz de Yuxibu: “para vocês terem poder de socorrer os seus povos, só se vocês se transformarem nas ervas. Que quando vocês se transformarem nas ervas, a vida, o trabalho de vocês, vai ser que nem Yuxibu”. Assim, é nos rituais de cura que os sentires de Deus e do mundo se entrecruzam, operando uma efetuação recíproca. O pajé recebe o corpo ancestral de todos os pajés que o antecederam (a voz e o canto) - natureza primordial - e se converte em plantas sagradas (fenômenos físicos e corporais) - natureza consequente. Ao mesmo tempo, todo o povo que participa do ritual tem a planta sagrada (ou as ervas curadoras) desperta em seu corpo (preensão física) e, ao longo
do ritual, ingressa no grande encantamento da beleza que cura (preensão conceitual).
Assim, o problema religioso e cosmológico no mundo Huni Kuin implica a ritualização permanente da vida; momento em que os indígenas recebem a voz e a palavra dos pajés e, ao mesmo tempo, ao ingerirem as plantas sagradas, depositam na natureza consequente de Deus os seus sentires físicos. É com esta ritualística que a natureza primordial de Deus alcança sua natureza consequente e que o processo de atualização das entidades do mundo alcança a sua imortalidade objetiva.
O presente estudo pretende, portanto, apresentar alguns elementos centrais da espiritualidade indígena Huni Kuin, em intersecção com o pensamento de Whitehead, no que tange em especial às relações imanentes entre Deus e o mundo.