6. Process Thought and Feminism
Updated: Aug 27, 2019
Section heads: Alice de Barros Gabriel and Gigliola Mendes
“In the making”: a construção de uma teologia islâmica a partir da justiça de gênero. Elzahrã Mohamed Radwan Omar Osman
PhD candidate at Universidade de Brasília-Brasil
A despeito do legado de Simone de Beauvoir e mesmo da filosofia do processo no fazer filosófico (e feminista) contemporâneo, a ideia de que as essências possam ser atualizadas parece-nos não apenas um ponto de disputa para os feminismos brancos, mas também uma impossibilidade epistêmica e ontológica para os outros não-ocidentais. Como nos diz Nelson Maldonado-Torres, constituiu-se na modernidade, sob o olhar antropológico, a plena certeza de que os outros são constituídos de “cultura” e, em assim sendo, essas seriam bárbaras, incivilizadas, primitivas, mágicas; a “filosofia” destes povos se pautaria por princípios religiosos já postos como necessariamente monolíticos, presos a normativas e jurisprudências estanques no tempo e no espaço, e ainda contemporaneamente não tendo plenamente absorvido o projeto iluminista civilizatório dadivoso da colonização. Neste sentido, a Europa e a civilização branca não possuem cultura (Maldonado-Torres), nem fazem parte de uma sociedade cristianocêntrica, mas tão somente comungam de qualidades como a de serem seculares, racionais, legalistas, civilizadas. Com Lila Abu-Lughod dizemos é necessário escrevermos contra o grande projeto político imperial, “é necessário escrever contra a cultura”, a criação de uma mitologia donde a imagem totalizante do outro concebe apenas uma realidade metafisicamente orquestrada para corresponder a nossa inteligibilidade sobre o mundo (e onde muitas vezes este outro procura atender a essas expectativas essencializando cosmogonias, normas, modos de vida (Rita Laura Segato). Apesar de vivermos sob a égide das ciências humanas, ainda é preciso apontar que a “cultura” (ou no nosso caso, o “islã”) não pode ser o único e isolado fator referente às opressões vivenciadas pelas mulheres dos outros, é preciso olhar para os colonialismos, os conflitos geopolíticos, e como outros fatores sociais e econômicos vão fragilizando a situação desta mulher (categoria não universal). O pensamento do processo, pensado a partir do engendramento deste outro colonial é uma possibilidade apenas para sociedades que não possuem cultura, já que apenas estas podem pensar quais os aspectos dos seus condicionamentos sociais e, a partir deles, reconhecer que 1- não existe diferença sexual, na medida em que ela é apenas uma consequência das desigualdades de gênero apostas por um patriarcado universal; ou 2 – a diferença sexual pode ser construída pelas mulheres por meio de um processo não essencializante (?), e não reificador das desigualdades de gênero, enquanto que aberto à valorização da diferença entre homens e mulheres, e entre mulheres (brancas?). Propõe-se aqui pensar que sim o pensamento do processo ou a ideia de que as coisas constituem-se na atualização sempre possível de metafísicas não ontologizantes é algo que se realiza no vir a ser, quando não obliterado, por todas as “culturas”. Mais ainda, quer-se apresentar o trabalho realizado por mulheres acadêmicas, religiosas ou não, que acedendo à epistemologia legada pela tradição islâmica, mas também pela filosofia ocidental, atualizam a teologia islâmica a partir do olhar da justiça de gênero, pois compreendem que toda e qualquer tradição está continuamente aberta a transformações e pode proporcionar soluções progressistas a seus próprios conflitos morais, ainda que não sejam soluções liberais.
Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil
Philosophy Department of Federal University of
Seeking to affirm life as a feature of “empty space”, Alfred North Whitehead points to life as a process of “between” in which process-thinking sees all reality as an interconnected whole. This means that a “living society” is one that includes some “living occasions” that flow through the void. For the Hijikata Tatsumi butoh the empty state comprises the pre-movement. The body in the butoh is always process, unfinished, perishable, and indistinct of gender and the place where it is and eternally in crisis. Both his ambivalence and his absences are part of his construction and make it unique. The butoh consists precisely in dancing a life with a void. In his book Sick Dancer, present in his Complete Works (2005) we find insects, fungi, a description of small sensations of everything that touched or penetrated the body of his childhood. However, its purpose is not only to describe micropayments and micromovements or their childhood memories, but also to restore the genesis of dance, which is the process itself of life and death. It is not coincidence that he mingles with the sick, the disabled, or the women. Hijikata seeks to reach an abstract dimension that enlarges the senses and where the feelings are transformed. Considering Whitehead’s theory of feeling, in which we respond to things in the first place, feeling them and only then identifying and recognizing them. Or, what emotions do not cause bodily states, but rather, bodily states come first, and emotions emerge from them. How, a philosophy of the body, the immediate experience that look into the seeing eye and the hand it touches, as Hijikata has taught us, is the only possible justification for any thought? Its starting point is nothing more than the analytical observation of the components of that experience, the emotions themselves. Life and death, absence and presence, light and shadow, the exhausted body, the fragility as an engine, is nothing more than the fragility sought to dance life containing the void.
Alfred and Evelyn:
a comparison of Alfred N. Whitehead’s and Evelyn Fox Keller’s
Philosophy of science
Maya Roman PhD candidate at the Cohn institute for the history and philosophy of
science and ideas, at Tel Aviv University.
According to feminist standpoint epistemology, a person’s viewpoint of the world, shaped by social factors, is an important characteristic that can affect the knowledge she will produce. This insight has led feminist philosophers to examine scientific bodies of knowledge and identify the ways they were androcentric and how an outsider’s perspective, exemplified by a perspective that takes into account women’s lives, could shed new light on scientific problems. Feminist standpoint epistemology has had a lasting impact upon feminist philosophy of science but I believe it has yet to reach its full potential because it never clearly defined a methodology for identifying a standpoint. In order to truly incorporate the insight that feminist standpoint epistemology has to offer we must form a way of connecting social experiences to specific scientific concepts or perspectives. In this proposed essay, I would like to define such a methodology by focusing on the work of two philosophers of science; Evelyn Fox Keller and Alfred North Whitehead.
Evelyn Fox Keller’s work in the philosophy of biology stresses the importance of organismic thought and its connection to feminist thought. Alfred North Whitehead’s philosophy of science stresses the need for a natural science based on concepts drawn from our daily lives. This project led Whitehead to develop his Philosophy of the Organism, which later became part of his Process Philosophy. Keller has not been influenced directly by Whitehead, yet their philosophies seem extremely similar. This raises the question – is there a correlation between their social experiences and conception of science? In this proposed essay I will develop a methodology to answer such a question by exploring the similarities and differences between Keller and Whitehead’s lives and philosophies
The WHO normative vocabulary on prevention of domestic violence
against women: Is it possible to shift from the consequentialist orthodoxy to the event-based paradigm?
National School of Public Health (Lisbon)
Background. Domestic violence (which most common victims are women) is recognized as a major public health problem since the mid-1990s. The WHO as a leading world authority on public health is the main international provider of prevention policies. The WHO normative vocabulary on domestic violence prevention refers to a set of foundational notions used for justifying corresponding policies held on behalf of the organization.
1. To identify the actual WHO normative vocabulary on prevention of domestic violence against women formed over two last decades.
2. To discuss opportunities of alignment the actual WHO approach to domestic violence prevention with a supposedly more adequate process- oriented and event-based outlook.
1. Thematic analysis of the core WHO prevention policies.
2. Philosophical hermeneutics of the identified normative framework and the proposed normative alternatives.
1. As a thematic analysis of the core WHO policies on prevention of domestic violence against women over two last decades shows, the consequentialism/utilitarianism is a normative orthodoxy in the actual WHO discourse.
2. The core consequentialist/utilitarian concepts (risk and protective factors, underlying causes, health and socioeconomic consequences, costs and benefits) determining moral and legal justifications of the WHO policies on prevention of domestic violence against women refer to the causal chains while leaving non-causal factors of violence without a proper attention.
3. Keeping in mind a crucial significance that an order of events has for a comprehension of violence (as the latter emergently happens, rather than comes to an existence as a certain kind of being), it should be grasped in a paradigm that would have been more relevant for such a task than a hegemonic consequentialism/utilitarianism of nowadays.
4. Process-oriented and event-based approaches appropriate for a widening the actual normative vocabulary on domestic violence prevention towards accounting its non-causal determinants can be found in a paradigm grounded on premises of non-linear thought elaborated in its processual (Whitehead), synergetic (Stengers), or poststructuralist (Deleuze, Guattari, Massumi) versions.
5. The problem of balancing causal and non-causal determinants of domestic violence in the sought-for new prevention policies deserves a separate consideration that might be undertaken on the next step of research.
„Schechina”, as an epiphany of the divine, as feminin : endevours within the Red Tent Temple in the Womb of the Mother
Ph.D candidate at Eotvos Lorand University Philosophical Sciences
I am a „junction” of more worlds and on my way to integtrate all that wisdom to a universal adaptable healing method, which we have to birth to serve Humankind and make it possible to re-connect through our Gaia consciousness. As a teologian and religion teacher I came to recognise, that the Allmightly, if „it” would like to express „itself” turns to be „feminin” in forms of the Sephirots-Schechina-Tent Tempel, which is a bright colour of light, which doesn’t burn, which is somewhere beyond and between consciousness and feeling in the very Heart-center of the creation. As a whiteheadian I seek to explore and understand theology, as process theology and it turns for me as a searching for an intension, an intensity, which is not density, but power, a concentration of energy, love, subjective aim and a direction of thought-faith, which makes the things to be visible, in-„futuring” them. I explored around the notion of the Chora in the Timaus of Plato and its whiteheadian understanding and found it a very deep notion. „Space” if you like, is an all-the-way-through feminin network of all Life, which already contains its „seeds”, as information within the brahman –akasha-or morphogenetic field. That „Space” opened itself for me and let itself to be identified with the Schechina Nature or self-expressionof the jewish-christian God, if „He” is expressing, becomes a woman. He is a woman, or „it”becomes a shine, a divine presence above the Holy of the Holies, it also identifies itself with the tent, as a form of a native tempel.
I was deeply impressed in Azores, where I explored that the chora, which is a neutral notion has a deep connection with the choré, the goddess of eleusys, the dying and resurrecting corp, and as a circle dancer found rythms and music for that early form of that goddess ritual. all those tribal forms do help us to connect and re-connect with the source. We all forget about the Mother. She cries out and calling, re-writing the old stories.
I am a red tent tempel faciliator and try to activate women in circles. All what I am trying to catch up is that reconnecting with that earth-power within the divine Space. and make circle, build society
Since I realised that this divine Space, the chora turns to be feminin, as a womb, it turns to have other qualities, like nurturing, shining, supporting, covering. not just „producing”, „manifesting”, „expressing”.that giving is a giving of Love.
I try to open that Space up and motivate others to do so, whiteheadians are gate openers. through that we can help the most through that challenging, transformational times of the present eco-crises.
I tried other forms of activism- recycle arts, workshops, entertaining,- but its all about rituals and circle work, which „works”. Whiteadians needs to make more activism and start their own circles and networking, we are Space-openers and Wisdom-keepers, delivering the healing message for our digital, industrial age within the ecocrisis. Process philosophy and process theology delivers the adequate wisdom for our age and it needs to gain more scientifical and academic reputation. since it deals with organism and networking, that chore-brahman field or chora, timeSpace which „opens”. so do I understood the „superject Nature” by Whitehead, the Creativity itself is nothing else, but that morphogenetic field, which exists and creates, and it does that on ALL levels - informatic, energetic, astral, physical, emotional. I tried to demonstrate these thoughts on earlier IWCs as a timespace continuum. Continuum is interesting that much, that it contains future in forms of „futuring” itself within the self-expressing „projects” of every living part of that network or tissue. I found myself inside the Womb of the Mother and I recognised that it is the same, as God in „his” Schechina aspect. Worldsoul or Gaia is a Space, as the Holy Spirit is a kind of „action” within that „Space”.For me with the years and experiences they somehow merged to each other. That is the Tempel, but actually all occasions are tempels, as reflections. My method is about the make that tempel possible, to build a new tempel and work more on the Light-body. Love-body of God within us is a Space to reach and is able to get more and more empowered. We need to re-connect with it through our center, and through that we are connecting with each other and with the globe itself. Whitehead contains all what we need to extablish a healthy society, education, religion, politics, economy, on a cooperational base, social integrated,one.
We don’t need to fight agains or for something, we just need to reclaim our right for power and empower ourselves through connecting and growing within the Love-Body of God.
Thats the way of healing, e,powering the good within, and it wins over.
That Heart-Space is an intensity, which we share, that way would be possible to rise up the frequency and „figtht against” the destructive tendencies. in that love body is equanimity, onness and our creative advance is nothing else, but a process to reach that unity of expressed value, togetherness in onness and bring that intensity. enought power, with proper direction and vision, so happens „futuring” and self-healing, society healing, so are we able to re-write our story and dream together a better dream.
Schechina es a universal notion, which is adequate to call all religions to celebrate our togetherness and participation in the divine, jews have it at their very center, christian understand it throught to motion of the Holy Spirit and moslems have their sakina notion for the theuphany. Torah, Shechina are feminin verbs in herbrew, Spirit is not at all maniscular. It makes NO sence. Spirit is feminin.The universal Goddess religion comes or unites through the acceptance of the onness, our „togetherness” in our center. We need to make that shift – other way round, it doesn’t take long and and She wins it back for Herself. The funny thing is that: how could we forgot her for so long? She was always there. The time of the patriarch and his industrial-capitalist era is over. they have to give us the lead, because we have the medicine, what the Earth needs.
As a reaction to Cobb, Ignatio Castuera and Hermann Greeen I would suggest, that we need to establish an „ecosophical spirituality”instead of an „ecological civilisation”.
It’s a misunderstanding here, „civilisation”, „culture” is a notion of power- overing something, cultivating, cutting, shaping,changing, it’s maniscular, its not good, not fair enough. „Eco-logical” „pains” again, it’s maniscular, patriarchal. it is NOT logical, at all, it is emotional, visional, creative, supportive, it is an eco-sophical turn, which we should make, we have the wisdom, - as again a Goddess expresion inside -, wisdom instead of logic. spirituality instead of civilisation. We need to understand and we need to take action, local and global. the transformation takes alread yplace.
Intra-ação e performatividade da matéria como resposta para o problema da bifurcação da natureza
Alice Gabriel PhD candidate at Universidade de Brasília, Brasil Instituto Federal de Goiás IFG
Alfred North Whitehead identificou no pensamento da modernidade uma tendência de bifurcação do pensamento entre qualidades primárias e secundárias, entre coisa em si e fenômeno ou, como em Bruno Latour, entre política e natureza. Sua metafísica foi uma tentativa de propor um sistema não bifurcante e, portanto, contraposto a esse aspecto fundamental do pensamento moderno. Whitehead propõe para isso o conceito de entidades atuais – elementos básicos que compõem o mundo e que ao contrário de uma metafísica tradicional não são substância, mas processo.
Karen Barad, física de formação, propõe uma ontologia da matéria a partir de uma releitura de Niels Bohr e Judith Butler. Em meeting the universe half way a autora propõe o conceito de performatividade da matéria – em contraste direto com concepções substantivistas da matéria: a matéria é performance, é tornar-se, é processo. O fantasma que Barad quer desfazer é o que chama de representacionismo, que proponho entender como um desdobramento do que Donna Haraway tem chamado de excepcionalismo humano – a construção de um fosso entre humanos e não-humanos que também é marca do pensamento moderno.
Nesse artigo, proponho ler difrativamente o projeto de realismo agencial de Barad e a filosofia do processo de Whitehead: o que pode surgir desse emaranhado?